Abstracts of Priority Research Project Funded for FY 2009
|Paul Dudis, Raylene Paludneviciene, Peter Hauser
Linguistics, Psychology, RIT
|Developing a theoretical framework for sign language assessment tests|
|Perception of Phonological Structure in ASL|
Educational Foundations and Research
|Guessing Games: The effect of morpho-graphemic organization on word attack skills|
|Effects of Bilingualism on Word Order and Information packaging in ASL|
Physical Education and Recreation
|Motivations and goals of owners, managers, and counselors of planned recreational (summer and weekend) programs for deaf and hard of hearing children.|
|Cynthia Roy, Melanie Metzger
|Investigating Interactive Interpreting|
|Qi Wang, Caroline Solomon
|Exploring Blended Instructional Pedagogy to Enhance Student Learning and Scientific Reasoning Skills in Biology|
|Parsing sentences in two languages|
Language assessment is a necessary component of any program concerned with language development and proficiency. Assessment tools are used in these programs for a variety of purposes—including evaluation for language class placement—and are part of linguistic diagnostics packages as well. Unfortunately, resources for the assessment of ASL proficiency are relatively scarce, putting ASL programs for deaf children at a disadvantage. Currently the field of language testing does not have a clear understanding of how ASL-based tests might be similar to and/or different from English-based tests. Our main goal is thus to consider and develop a theoretical framework with which to produce ASL proficiency tests. The studies that comprise our project would make significant contributions towards establishing working guidelines for test developers aiming to measure ASL skills in different populations.
The study investigates how language experience and parameters of phonological structure like handshape, location, and movement affect perception in American Sign Language (ASL). To examine perception, the study uses two experimental techniques in psycholinguistics: primed lexical decision and primed phonological matching. In the first technique, participants judge whether the second sign of a pair is real or nonce. The question is whether the first sign facilitates performance if the two signs share a parameter in common. In the second, novel technique, participants judge whether two signs produced by different signers are the same. The question here is whether participants can detect when the two signs differ slightly in one of the parameters. To evaluate the effects of language experience, performance on these tasks are compared across both Deaf and hearing individuals in three groups: those exposed to ASL from birth; those exposed to ASL after five years of age; and those with no prior
ASL exposure. The significance of the study lies in addressing several priority areas: it identifies aspects of linguistic structure prominent in perception (Priority 8) and determines the degrees of signed language fluency with respect to perception, which can be applied toward language assessment
Deaf individuals' reading levels lags behind their hearing peers (Allen, 1986; Conrad, 1979) and this lag has not been reduced in the past 30 to 40 years (e.g., Marschark & Harris, 1996; Musselman, 2000). The reason for this lag is open to debate, with some researchers focusing on phonological awareness as the weak link (e.g., Colin, Magnan, Ecalle, & Leybaert, 2007; Luetke-Stahlman & Nielsen, 2003) while others find evidence that orthographic information and morphology appears to be important (Transler, Leybaert, & Gombert, 1999). Word identification is an important component within reading that permits moving from the printed form to the internal lexicon. Gonter Gaustad (2000) reviews the evidence of morphological sensitivity within this word identification process. The use of morphology facilitates word identification in two ways—through a direct link between orthographic strings and their corresponding lexical meaning and then through the ability to decode novel mulitmorphemic strings into their individual components (Gonter Gaustad). The current project focuses on these connections to determine if multimorphemic low frequency words provide internal mappings to their definitions.
Instruction of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) content has always been challenging for Gallaudet University's (GU) undergraduate programs which serve deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students who primarily depend upon visual sensory inputs to process information. Several major factors related to STEM subject matters and the university's unique instructional environment have adversely affected student learning delivered through traditional one-pace-fits-all classroom lectures. These factors include DHH students' general lack of prior scientific content knowledge, practice-based skill acquisition in STEM fields that requires learning labs to replicate real-world environment, lack of a universal signing standard, extensive use of fingerspelling in signed lectures, and learners with significantly diverged capability due to GU's liberal undergraduate admission policy. This three-semester multiple case study, proposed to address GU's Research Priority 4—Teaching, Learning and the Communication Environment, is to explore an e-Learning and classroom instruction blended learning pedagogy with DHH biology majors and to examine its associated factors that may influence student comprehension and scientific reasoning skills in Biology, one of the most popular STEM disciplines on campus. The investigation will replicate and expand the instructional design and research framework derived from a multiple-case study which explored blended learning design and individualized instructional delivery with students in Computer Information Systems classes (Wang, 2006). The preliminary findings of the limited experiment (in length and scope) were positive. However, additional studies with a more systematic approach and different target learners in other STEM disciplines are called for to gain further insights on the technology-supported blended learning phenomenon, to test the premise that this alternative learning paradigm can improve DHH student learning of STEM subjects, and to accumulate instructional design and delivery experiences that can be applied to other STEM disciplines.
The main goal of this study is to examine what kind of information, syntactic and semantic, second language learners utilize when they read in their second language. Specifically, we will examine the processing of English relative clauses among different groups of second language learners of English, namely, deaf ASL-English bilinguals, Russian-English bilinguals, and Spanish-English bilinguals. We will also investigate how the participants' English proficiency levels as well as their individual cognitive resources may play a role in how closely second language sentence processing might approximate sentence processing in the L1.
This project aims to study the development of information packaging by ASL monolingual and ASL/English bilingual children. Information packaging refers to the ways in which speakers organize old and new information during discourse with an interlocutor. Recent reports in the acquisition literature have demonstrated that Deaf children as young as 1;6-2;0 appear to make use of topic and focus structures. However, the extent to which these structures adhere to target-like discourse/pragmatic requirements is not clear. It is also not clear from these reports whether children accurately produce the nonmanual (prosodic) features or noncanonical word order that accompany such information structures in adult ASL. This study will collect both longitudinal and experimental data with the goal of uncovering the developmental patterns for topic and focus constructions, as well as their effects on word order and nonmanual prosody. In addition, inclusion of both mono- and bilingual signers will allow investigation of possible cross-modality transfer effects between English and ASL. Bilingualism across two modalities presents opportunities for a wider variety of potential transfer effects than traditional monomodal bilingualism on which current models of transfer are based, and can thus serve as a crucial test case for refining this aspect of linguistic theory.
There are approximately 70 known summer camps for deaf and hard of hearing children and youth around the United States. In addition, weekend programs directed at mainstreamed deaf and hard of hearing youth are emerging around the United States as education and mental health professionals strive to provide the crucial social experiences that are frequently lacking in mainstream settings.
This study is the first to focus on this phenomenon and is now in its third year. Given the dearth of research on these programs, the focus is on very foundation of the program — the administrators, the program staff and the actual activities offered. What are the motivations and goals of owners, managers, and counselors of summer and weekend programs for deaf and hard of hearing children? How are these motivations and goals reflected in staffing patterns (qualifications, training provided, expectations), actual activities, perception of ongoing challenges, and marketing efforts? To what extent do these patterns, activities and perceptions include sensitivity to and a special effort towards solitary and almost solitary children and youth?
This qualitative study will attempt to answer these and other questions, to provide rich description of the current state of affairs and promote further study of various elements of this phenomenon.
Our purpose is to investigate face-to-face interpreted encounters in medical, mental health, legal, educational, government and business settings from a discourse perspective. The assistance of interpreters is a necessary way for deaf and hard-of-hearing persons to overcome language barriers in the everyday routines of many public institutions. Most of these routines are accomplished by talking face-to-face, by having a conversation. How these conversations are accomplished through an interpreter has not been thoroughly investigated. We propose to video-record ten interpreted encounters and analyze them using discourse analysis methodology from the various approaches within linguistics. We will account for interpreter-mediated conversation as a mode of communication, about interpreters and their responsibilities, about what they do, and what others expect them to do in face-to-face, institutional encounters. If interpreting is to be acknowledged as a profession when it occurs in the everyday life of public institutions and organizations, and if we are to teach this professional endeavor and gain the confidence and respect of the public, we need to have well-founded and shared ideas about what interpreting in these settings is all about, what interpreters are good for, and about preferred standards to apply in various situations.
[Last modified: 2011.12.05 16:50:38. by Kevin Cole]